Safety precautions in use of batteries
Maximum care should be paid for the following warnings during transport, storage, usage, maintenance and return process for safety.
Batteries emit Hydrogen (H2) gas having the explosive characteristic during the charging operation. Charging areas should be well-ventilated.
Hydrogen gas formed during charging is an explosive gas. Fire sources such as spark, flame, smoldering cigarette, source, etc. should be kept out of charging area.
Protective glasses must always be worn against the danger of acid splash during transport, storage, charging, maintenance, assembling and use of batteries.
Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) used as electrolyte in batteries may cause serious burning when it contacts with skin. For this reason, in case of contact with acid, the contact area should be wasted with plenty of water. In case of contact between eve and acid. It should be applied to medical control after washing.
Batteries must be kept away from children because of explosion and acid splash danger.
While dissembling the battery from vehicle, first remove the negative(-) terminal.
During assembling the battery to the vehicle, first connect the positive(+) terminal.
Hand in old batteries at a collection point. Never dispose of old batteries as domestic waste.
Battery storage, transport conditions and maintenance rules.
Battery storage conditions directly affect the self-discharging state of battery. The following rules should be followed.
- Batteries should be stored in room temperature ( 25±2°C) and moisture free environment.
- Batteries should be stored in a closed environment that won’t be subjected to sunlight, rain, snow etc.
- Shelf life of batteries waiting in stock reduces with temperature increase in a certain rate.
- For Ca-Ca Sealed Maintenance Free(SMF)
- Average shelf life in 25°C storage conditions: 8 months
- Average shelf life in 35°C storage conditions: 4 months
- Hybrid (Ca-Sb) batteries’ shelf life is shorter than Ca-Ca batteries’ shelf life
- Wet charged batteries must be kept in horizontal position and if they are put one on the top of the other, contact of terminals should be prevented using a conductive separators.
- Ground of area where batteries are stored must be smooth and without slope. Battery must be stored on a conductive ground( wood, plastic palettes, etc..)
- In sale of battery, look at the charge date and apply FIFO( First In First Out) system according to charge date.
- During transport of batteries in warehouse, it should be paid attention for the impact that battery may take.
- Voltage values of batteries waiting in warehouse must be checked regularly in every three months, batteries whose voltage value is 12.50V or below should be charged additionally.
- In batteries requiring maintenance(MF) acid levels should be checked and distilled water should be added in batteries whose acid level is reduced( Acid or acidic water must never be added!).
- Battery should not be stored in low charge in winter. In case of low electrolyte density, electrolyte may be frozen. Full charged battery doesn’t freeze until -60°C.
- Battery whose electrolyte is frozen should be waited until electrolyte temperature is 15°C and above.
- Pay attention for cleaning of battery and be sure that air holes of plugs and gas discharge places are open. Otherwise, the gas formed in battery may cause swelling of battery and explosion of battery.
Environmental effect of scrap battery:
- According to regulations of waste batteries and accumulators, the battery scraps should be taken from users against deposit and must be stored under suitable place ( in a ground preventing the contact of electrolyte leakage with soil and water).
- Due to hazardous effect of electrolyte to the environment, the scrap battery must be disposed with its electrolyte and electrolyte of the scrap batteries shouldn’t be poured.
Battery selection and assembly steps
While choosing battery: Capacity(Ah), Self-Starter force (A(EN)) and the suitability of assembling to vehicle( Dimensional) are taken into the consideration.
- Assembly steps
- The vehicles’s ignition is turned off.
- Vehicle voltage and direction( flat-reverse battery) are checked by voltmeter.
- (Don’t make cross connection; it will cause a serious damage in electronic system of vehicle)
- The negative(-) terminal is removed first and after the positive(+) terminal is removed.
- The vehicle battery tray and cable connection ends are cleaned and new battery is placed and lower connections are tightened carefully.
- During the connection of new battery, the positive(+) terminal is connected first then negative(-) terminal is connected and tightened carefully. During connection, it should be paid attention that there are no spaces between terminal and connection apparatus. While tightening, pay attention to not damage the terminals of battery.
- Note : In electronic brain controlled vehicles, removing the battery may cause memory loss of electronic devices which is used in the vehicle. For this reason, the energy cut should be prevented by means of a second battery or a special device before removing old battery.
- Control vehicle
- During new battery is on vehicle and vehicle is still working, all illumination, radio and air conditioner hardware etc. are kept open and voltage of vehicle electrical system is measured from terminals of battery. Optimum voltage must be 13.8V- 14.4V for healthy working electrical system. When voltage of vehicle is lower than the required level, it will cause sulfation not charging the battery sufficiently charge. When voltage is higher, it will cause spilling( burning) of plate by overcharging. In this case, it should be applied to vehicle service immediately. After the assembling of ex battery, while the car ignition is off, whether there is any leakage in the vehicle must be checked by pens ammeter.
Battery charging steps
Wet charged batteries
Batteries with low charge level are charged in the current(A) and periods stated in below table according to determined charge levels by taking capacity(Ah) type into account.
At the end of charge periods stated in the following table, rectifier is closed, after pulling out connection cables, battery is left for resting for two hours. At the end of resting, the conformity of voltage and density values of battery is controlled according the following table. During charging, if there is a decrease in electrolyte level, add distilled water until cover the grift. In Sealed Maintenance Free(SMF) batteries (whose plugs can’t be opened) they are charged only according to voltage values.
Evaluation and Application Table of Battery Charge Status ( for Ambient temperature 27°C)
|Density(g/cm3)||Voltage(V)||Charge Status||An additional Charge Operation|
|1,25||12,50||75% Charged||1/20 current of capacity 6 hours charge|
|1,21||12,30||50% Charged||1/20 current of capacity 12 hours charge|
|1,18||12,10||25% Charged||1/20 current of capacity 18 hours charge|
|1,14||11,90||Kick Down||1/20 current of capacity 20 hours charge|
|1,11||11,70||Discharge||1/20 current of capacity 24 hours charge|
Check the Indicator (If the battery has the Indicator). Always look right down when viewing the Indicator and lightly tap the Indicator on the battery to dislodge any air bubbles.
Charging application steps:
- Check that battery charging equipment is closed.
- Connect the positive(+) cable’s end of battery to positive terminal and connect the negative(-) cable’s end to the negative terminal.
- According to the battery type, select the suitable current and voltage value in charge device and start the charging operation.
- At the end of charging operation, firstly close the charging equipment then remove the connection cables of terminal.
- Decide if extra charge is needed while checking charge state of batteries.
- If rectifier’s capacity is suitable, several batteries having the same capacity can be connected serially and charged( positive(+) terminal of battery must be connected to negative(-) terminal of other battery) at the same time.
- Be careful for not reducing the acid level by overflowing and not being above 60°C of battery electrolyte temperature. If temperature rises, charge current is decreased or charging is paused and battery is left for cooling.
MAKING READY THE DRY CHARGED BATTERIES FOR USE:
Dry charged batteries are made of charged plates and its electrolyte (acid) is added afterwards. Electrolyte is added into the every cell in a way that covers the grift surface. Battery prepared in such way is waited for 20 minutes and if there is a decrease in acid amount, additional acid is added. Battery is waiter for 1-2 hours and voltage is measured and suitability is determined. Voltage must be above 12,5V, If it is below 12,5V battery is charged additionally according to the battery charging evaluation table.
Battery Warranty Condition
When a customer has problems with our batteries, he must show WARRANTY CERTIFICATE, ORIGINAL INVOICE or INVOICE PHOTOCOPY. If warranty certificate or valid invoice photocopy is not available, battery is evaluated as OUT OF WARRANTY. If these documents are available and battery is within warranty period, it would be passed to troubleshooting.
Troubleshooting steps of battery:
1) VISUAL CONTROL
- Battery warranty card-paper control
- Battery production/sales dates control to check whether it is within the warranty period
- Electrolyte leakage on battery surface
- Crack, crushed, hole or deformation on box or cover
- Deformation, poor connection, breaking off in terminal
- Lighting state of indicator
- Closed/blocked plugs holes or gas evacuation holes are checked.
2) BATTERY CHARGING LEVEL AND ELECTROLYTE CONTROL
- Battery VOLTAGE (Open Circuit Voltage) is measured and recorded by a credible voltmeter (Calibrated). New charged battery (charged at vehicle or outside) can show superficial charge. For this reason it should be left for waiting.
- Current is taken from battery for average 5 second with shunted voltmeter and voltage value read (Under Load Voltage or Cranking Voltage) is recorded.
- For Maintenance Free (MF) batteries, Electrolyte density is each cell is measured by hydrometer and recorded. Also while taking current by means of shunted voltmeter, electrolyte boiling situation is observed and electrolyte color and electrolyte level in every cell are measured and recorded.